Volume 3.22 | Jun 17

Immune Regulation News 3.22, June 17, 2011
     In this issue: Science News | Current Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events
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TOP STORY

New Cell Type Offers Immunology Hope
A team of Melbourne scientists has discovered a new type of cell in the immune system. The new cell type, a kind of white blood cell, belongs to a family of T-cells that play a critical role in protection against infectious disease. [Press release from The University of Melbourne discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology]

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SCIENCE NEWS

Immune Response to Tumour Cells Could Aid Cancer Battle
Scientists have shown that tumour “hybrid” cell lines can induce immune responses against tumour cells in the lab, as opposed to directly attacking them. As a result, the patients’ tumour cells, as well as related cell lines, were killed, findings reveal. [The University of Leicester Press Release]

How The Immune System Fights Back Against Anthrax Infections
Scientists have uncovered how the body’s immune system launches its survival response to the notorious and deadly bacterium anthrax. The findings describe key emergency signals the body sends out when challenged by a life-threatening infection. [Press release from the University of California, San Diego discussing online prepublication in Immunity]

Sugar-Binding Protein May Play a Role in HIV Infection
UCLA researchers report that a sugar-binding protein called galectin-9 traps protein disulfide isomerase on T-cells’ surface, making them more susceptible to HIV infection. [Press release from the University of California, Los Angeles discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA]

Special Protein Protects New Islet Cells from Autoimmune Destruction
A team unveiled a newly tweaked part of their experiment that introduced a molecule called CD274 (or PDL1 [programmed death ligand]), which inhibits the activation of T-cells, thus preventing them from attacking the new islet cells. [Press release from the Baylor College of Medicine discussing research presented at ENDO 2011]

Immune Cells Link Pregnancy and Tumor Spread
Researchers found that the increased metastasis from tumors of several different types that they observed in pregnant mice was a result of decreased activity of NK cells. [Press release from ScienceDaily discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation]

Suppressing Sex Hormones May Boost Transplantation Tolerance in Older Patients
Suppressing the production of sex hormones could help prevent transplant rejection in elderly patients, researchers claim. They have shown that chemically or surgically castrating aging mice that were otherwise unable to benefit from the tolerance-inducing effects of the anti-CD45RB mAb led to thymic regeneration and long-term acceptance of cardiac allografts. [Press release from Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News discussing online prepublication in Science Translational Medicine]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

A Semi-Invariant Vα10+ T Cell Antigen Receptor Defines a Population of Natural Killer T cells with Distinct Glycolipid Antigen–Recognition Properties
Here researchers describe a population of α-galactosylceramide-reactive natural killer T cells that expressed a canonical Vα10-Jα50 T cell antigen receptor α-chain, which showed a preference for α-glucosylceramide and bacterial α-glucuronic acid–containing glycolipid antigens. [Nat Immunol]

The Development of Inducible Gronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Depends on IL-17
The results suggest that IL-17-producing T cells are critical for the development of ectopic lymphoid tissues. [Nat Immunol]

Anthrax Toxin Induces Macrophage Death by p38 MAPK Inhibition but Leads to Inflammasome Activation via ATP Leakage
Using virulent and nonvirulent strains of Bacillus anthracis, researchers have shown that secretion of ATP by infected macrophages and the sequential activation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors are critical for IL-1-dependent host protection from virulent B. anthracis. [Immunity]

Unc93B1 Restricts Systemic Lethal Inflammation by Orchestrating Toll-like Receptor 7 and 9 Trafficking
Researchers demonstrate that mice harboring a D34A mutation showed TLR7-dependent, systemic lethal inflammation. CD4+ T cells showed marked differentiation toward T helper 1 (Th1) or Th17 cell subsets. [Immunity]

Phospholipase C-β3 Regulates FcɛRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation by Recruiting the Protein Phosphatase SHP-1
Here researchers show that phospholipase C (PLC)-β3 is crucial for high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated mast cell activation. [Immunity]

A Single T Cell Receptor Bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Glycoproteins Reveals Switchable TCR Conformers
To understand how T cell receptors (TCRs) can use the same set of variable regions to bind both proteins, researchers have presented a comparison of a single TCR bound to both MHCI and MHCII ligands. [Immunity]

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells are Implicated in Regulating Permissiveness for Tumor Metastasis during Mouse Gestation
Here researchers have shown that during murine gestation, metastasis is enhanced regardless of tumor type, and that decreased NK cell activity is responsible for the observed increase in experimental metastasis. [J Clin Invest]

Foxp3-Positive Macrophages Display Immunosuppressive Properties and Promote Tumor Growth
For the first time, the studies demonstrate the existence of a distinct subpopulation of naturally occurring macrophage regulatory cells in which expression of Foxp3 correlates with suppressive function. [J Exp Med]

Galectin-9 Binding to Cell Surface Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regulates the Redox Environment to Enhance T-Cell Migration and HIV Entry
Researchers find that galectin-9 binding to protein disulfide isomerase on Th2 cells results in increased cell migration through extracellular matrix via β3 integrins, identifying a unique mechanism to regulate T-cell migration. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]

Inhibition of Transplantation Tolerance by Immune Senescence Is Reversed by Endocrine Modulation
Researchers found that after the age of 12 months, mice became resistant to the tolerance-inducing capacity of the monoclonal antibody therapy anti-CD45RB. [Sci Transl Med]

INDUSTRY NEWS

Generex Announces Appointment of CEO for Post-Spinout Antigen Express
Generex Biotechnology Corporation announced that Jos van der Woert has been appointed to act as Chief Executive Officer of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Antigen Express, Inc., following its spinout. [Generex Biotechnology Corporation Press Release]

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Ltd Expands Phase II Trial Of ICT-107 Enrollment Expected To Occur At Minimum Of 20 Centers
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Ltd announced the expansion of sites for its Phase II clinical trial of ICT-107. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Ltd Press Release]

Adaptimmune Announces Opening of Phase I/II Clinical Trial for Metastatic Melanoma at Washington University, St. Louis
Adaptimmune announced that it has opened a Phase I/II, two cohort, open label clinical trial in metastatic melanoma at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Adaptimmune is focused on the use of T-cell therapy to treat cancer. [Adaptimmune Press Release]

VGX Animal Health DNA Vaccine for Dogs Could Reduce Tumor Growth and Increase Survival
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that its subsidiary VGX Animal Health, Inc., a developer of DNA-based vaccines and therapies for companion and food animals, has achieved strong T cell responses from VAH-5000D, its DNA vaccine encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase for the treatment of dogs with cancer. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Press Release]

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Discussion workshop: 2nd Improving Immunohistochemistry Workshop
October 28, 2011
London, England

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Chemist (STEMCELL Technologies)

Research and Development Senior Technologist (STEMCELL Technologies)

Proteomics, Vascular Biology/Angiogenesis, or Immunology (St.Michael’s Hospital/University of Toronto)

Research Scientist in Immunology (Nestle Research Center)

PhD Scholarship (Tasmania University)


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