Volume 3.18 | May 20

Immune Regulation News 3.18, May 20, 2011
     In this issue: Science News | Current Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events
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TOP STORY

Immune Cells May Protect Children From Rare, Severe Condition
By analyzing complex interactions of the immune system in an animal study, pediatric researchers have found potential tools for controlling a life-threatening condition called a cytokine storm that may strike children who have juvenile arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. [Press release from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation]

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SCIENCE NEWS

Cell Therapy to Prevent Organ Rejection
Researchers have used cells found naturally in the body, to re-educate the immune system to prevent rejection of an organ transplant while remaining capable of fighting infections and cancer. [Press release from Kings College London discussing online prepublication in Science Translational Medicine]

Duke-NUS Researchers Identify New Cell that Attacks Dengue Virus
Studying dengue virus in mice, the research team found that mast cells can sense and recognize viruses, and in turn release signaling chemicals to create an immune response. [Duke Medicine Press Release]

U of M Experts Develop Technique to Duplicate Immunity Boosting Cells to Unprecedented Levels
Researchers have discovered a method to quickly and exponentially grow regulatory T-cells. The new process enables replication of the cells by tens of millions in several weeks, a dramatic increase over previous duplication methods. [Press release from the University of Minnesota Medical School discussing online prepublication in Science Translational Medicine]

University of Alberta Researchers Take First Step in Understanding the Immunity of Bacteria
Researchers at the University of Alberta have taken an important step in understanding the immune system of bacteria, a finding that could have implications for medical care and both the pharmaceutical and dairy industries. [Press release from the University of Alberta discussing online prepublication in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology]

Missing DNA ‘Mechanic’ Key Driver in Lymphomas
Scientists have discovered how a protein in immune cells plays an essential role in their development by repairing DNA damage – and if this protein is missing lymphomas can form. [Press release from Cancer Research UK discussing online prepublication in Cancer Cell]

Preventing the Spread of HIV/AIDS with Humanized BLT Mice
A new study further validates the use of humanized BLT mice in the fight to block HIV transmission. [Press release from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Virology]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

ATMIN Is Required for Maintenance of Genomic Stability and Suppression of B Cell Lymphoma
Here, researchers show that mice lacking the ATM cofactor ATMIN in B cells have impaired ATM signaling and develop B cell lymphomas. [Cancer Cell]

Intestinal Bacterial Colonization Induces Mutualistic Regulatory T (Treg) Cell Responses
Microbiota colonization-induced Treg cell responses are a fundamental intrinsic mechanism to induce and maintain host-intestinal microbial T cell mutualism. [Immunity]

Transcription Factor Smad-Independent T Helper 17 Cell Induction by Transforming-Growth Factor-β Is Mediated by Suppression of Eomesodermin
Researchers searched for genes regulated by TGF-β through the Smad-independent pathway by using Smad2 and Smad3 double-deficient T cells and identified the transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes), whose expression was suppressed by TGF-β via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-c-Jun signaling pathway. [Immunity]

Gain-of-Function Pyrin Mutations Induce NLRP3 Protein-Independent Interleukin-1β Activation and Severe Autoinflammation in Mice
The data provide evidence for an ASC-dependent NLRP3-independent inflammasome in which gain-of-function pyrin mutations cause autoinflammatory disease. [Immunity]

Intravital Imaging Reveals Limited Antigen Presentation and T Cell Effector Function in Mycobacterial Granulomas
Here researchers investigate relationships among antigen presentation, T cell motility, and local production of effector cytokines by CD4+ T cells within hepatic granulomas triggered by Bacille Calmette-Guérin or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. [Immunity]

Repeated TLR9 Stimulation Results in Macrophage Activation Syndrome–Like Disease in Mice
Researchers show that repeated stimulation of TLR9 produced an hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation-like syndrome on a normal genetic background, without exogenous antigen. [J Clin Invest]

Recognition and Maturation of Effector RNAs in a CRISPR Interference Pathway
Here researchers describe structural and functional analyses of the Thermus thermophilus CRISPR Cse3 endonuclease. [Nat Struct Mol Biol]

Topically Applied 1% Tenofovir in Humanized BLT Mice Using the CAPRISA 004 Experimental Design Demonstrates Partial Protection from Vaginal HIV Infection Validating the BLT Model for the Evaluation of New Microbicide Candidates
To further validate the usefulness of the BLT mouse model for testing HIV prevention strategies, researchers evaluated the topical administration of tenofovir as used in CAPRISA 004 to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in BLT mice. [J Virol]

Functional Regulatory T Cells Produced by Inhibiting Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Type 3 Prevent Allograft Rejection
Here researchers demonstrate that stimulation of mouse CD4+ T cells by immature allogeneic dendritic cells combined with pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3 resulted in a functional enrichment of Foxp3+ T cells. [Sci Transl Med]

Human Regulatory T Cells with Alloantigen Specificity Are More Potent Inhibitors of Alloimmune Skin Graft Damage than Polyclonal Regulatory T Cells
The improved in vivo efficacy of alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) over polyclonal Tregs shown here suggests that generating “customized” Tregs with defined anti-donor allospecificities may improve current practice in clinical immunotherapy. [Sci Transl Med]

Massive ex Vivo Expansion of Human Natural Regulatory T Cells (Tregs) with Minimal Loss of in Vivo Functional Activity
The capability to efficiently produce donor cell banks of functional natural Tregs could transform the treatment of graft-versus-host disease and autoimmunity by providing an off-the-shelf, cost-effective, and proven cellular therapy. [Sci Transl Med]

INDUSTRY NEWS

Sanofi and Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Sign License Agreement on Novel Monoclonal Antibody for Crohn’s Disease and Other Chronic Autoimmune Disorders
Sanofi announced that it has entered into a license agreement with Glenmark Pharmaceuticals S.A., wholly owned subsidiary of Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited India, for the development and commercialization of GBR500, a novel monoclonal antibody to treat Crohn’s Disease and other chronic autoimmune disorders. [Sanofi Press Release]

Dendreon Announces Presentation of PROVENGE Data at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting
Dendreon Corporation announced PROVENGE® (sipuleucel-T) data presentations taking place at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting in Chicago, Illinois. [Dendreon Corporation Press Release]

Study Determined Best Dose and Showed 55 Percent Response Rate With Lilly Anti-BAFF Monoclonal Antibody in Previously-Treated Multiple Myeloma Patients
Eli Lilly and Company announced Phase I data on LY2127399, a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes B-cell activating factor (BAFF), for use in combination with bortezomib in patients with previously-treated multiple myeloma. [Eli Lilly and Company Press Release]

DBV Demonstrates Ability of VIASKIN® to Administer Allergen via Intact Skin by Targeting Dendritic Cells for Safe Treatment of Allergic Disease
By showing all the steps of the passage of an allergen through the intact skin, this study gives the keys of the regulatory T cell-oriented mechanism of the safest method of specific immunotherapy in food allergy. [DBV Technologies Press Release]

TxCell Receives Approval for Extension of Phase I/II Clinical Trial in Crohn’s Disease
TxCell SA announced the approval by AFSSAPS, the French regulatory agency, of its application to extend treatment of patients included in the Crohn’s Disease Phase I/II study (CATS1) with Ovasave, a type 1 regulatory T cell based immunotherapy. [TxCell Press Release]

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Host-Fungal Interactions: Pathogenicity versus Immunity
October 21, 2011
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Scientist – Human Monoclonal Antibody Discovery (Arsanis Biosciences)

Implementation Coordinator – Maternity Leave Contract (STEMSOFT Software Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Mucosal Immunology (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University)

Research Officer Antibody Engineering (Glenmark Pharmaceuticals S.A.)


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