Volume 3.06 | Feb 18

Immune Regulation News 3.06, February 18, 2011.

     In this issue: Science News | Current Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events
 
TOP STORY

Key Culprit Identified in Breast Cancer Metastasis
When doctors discover high concentrations of regulatory T cells in the tumors of breast cancer patients, the prognosis is often grim, though why exactly has long been unclear. New research suggests these regulatory T cells produce a protein that appears to hasten and intensify the spread of breast cancer to distant organs and, in doing so, dramatically increase the risk of death. [Press release from ScienceDaily discussing online prepublication in Nature]

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SCIENCE NEWS

‘Sleepy’ Immune System Might Fight HIV
A Manitoba AIDS scientist says a reduced immune system might actually be the best defence against the disease. [CBC News]

Newcastle Researchers Develop Life-Saving Treatment
Patients from across the country with a hereditary immune disorder are benefiting from life-saving treatment, thanks to the work of
scientists at Newcastle University. The researchers are the first in the world to identify the rare syndrome, which devastates the immune system and can lead to hereditary leukaemia and lung disease. The research is the first to describe dendritic cell deficiency in humans. [Press release from Newcastle University discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Experimental Medicine]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

Tumor-Infiltrating Regulatory T Cells Stimulate Mammary Cancer Metastasis through RANKL–RANK Signaling
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK control the proliferation of mammary lobuloalveolar cells during pregnancy through inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase-alpha (IKK-alpha), a protein kinase that is needed for the self-renewal of mammary cancer progenitors and for prostate cancer metastasis. Scientists therefore examined whether RANKL, RANK and IKK-alpha are also involved in mammary/breast cancer metastasis. [Nature]

Leishmania RNA Virus Controls the Severity of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
Here researchers show that metastasizing parasites have a high Leishmania RNA virus–1 (LRV1) burden that is recognized by the host Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. [Science]

Control of the Development of CD8(Alpha)(Alpha)+ Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes by TGF-Beta
Here researchers show that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) controls the development of TCR(alpha)(beta)+CD8(alpha)(alpha)+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. [Nat Immunol]

CD4+ T Cell Help and Innate-Derived IL-27 Induce Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Antiviral CTLs
Here researchers report that CD4+ T cell help in the form of IL-2 is required for IL-10 production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), but not for the induction of CTL effector cytokines. [Nat Immunol]

Intestinal Tolerance Requires Gut Homing and Expansion of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in the Lamina Propria
Here researchers use several mouse models to show that Treg cells, after their generation in lymph nodes, need to home to the gut to undergo local expansion to install oral tolerance. [Immunity]

Prominent Role for Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Mucosal T Cell-Independent IgA Induction
Here researchers show a critical role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in T cell-independent IgA production by B cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. [Immunity]

The Kinases MEKK2 and MEKK3 Regulate Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Helper T Cell Differentiation
Here researchers showed that the MAPK kinase kinases MEKK2 (encoded by Map3k2) and MEKK3 (encoded by Map3k3) negatively regulated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-mediated T helper cell differentiation. [Immunity]

Nuclear Export of the NF-(Kappa)B Inhibitor I(Kappa)B(Alpha) Is Required for Proper B Cell and Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Formation
Here researchers report the derivation and analysis of genetically targeted mice harboring a germline mutation in the I(kappa)B(alpha) nuclear export sequence. [Immunity]

The Human Syndrome of Dendritic Cell, Monocyte, B and NK Lymphoid Deficiency
Researchers show that a recently described syndrome of monocytopenia, B and NK lymphoid deficiency additionally includes the near absence of dendritic cells. [J Exp Med]

CD34+ Hematopoietic Precursors are Present in Human Decidua and Differentiate into Natural Killer Cells upon Interaction with Stromal Cells
The findings strongly suggest that decidual natural killer cells may directly derive from CD34+ cell precursors present in the decidua upon specific cellular interactions with components of the decidual microenvironment. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]

INDUSTRY NEWS

Advaxis Included in the Mentor Capital Cancer Immunotherapy Index
Advaxis, Inc., the live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes vaccine company, has been included in the Mentor Capital Cancer Immunotherapy Index, an index of companies judged noteworthy by Mentor Capital that are predominantly involved in the cancer immunotherapy sector. [Business Wire]

Virax Announces Exclusive License with Transgene for Novel Skin Cancer Immunotherapeutic Treatment
Australian bio-pharmaceutical company Virax Holdings Limited is pleased to announce that it has signed a worldwide exclusive License Agreement with leading French biopharmaceutical company Transgene for Virax to develop Transgene’s TG1042 a clinical-stage skin cancer immunotherapy product. [Virax Holdings Limited Press Release]

Modell Chair in Pediatric Immunology Established
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia announced the establishment of the Jeffrey Modell Endowed Chair in Pediatric Immunology Research. [The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Press Release]

Clinical Responses Demonstrated in Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with BPX-101 Cancer Vaccine
Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the presentation of Phase I/II safety and efficacy data for BPX-101, a novel drug-activated dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer, in three separate posters at the 2011 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. [Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Press Release]

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW The IL-1 Family of Cytokines: From Basic Biology to Clinical Applications
May 8-11, 2011
Clearwater Beach, United States

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JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Lab Technologist – Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies)

Assistant Professor (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Center for Cellular and Molecular Engineering)

Director, Academic Division of Infectious Disease (University of Minnesota)

Process Technical Development Scientist (StemCells, Inc.)

Field Applications Specialist – Cell Therapy (Medical) (Pall Corporation)

Scientist – Pathology (Immunology) (Genentech)


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